A US trade official, who spoke to reporters as part of a briefing, said the US has evidence that China requires companies to create local partnerships to enter the Chinese market, as a way of pressuring them into technology transfer.
The US also found evidence that China steers investments in the US to strategic industries, and conducts and supports cyber attacks.
The findings come from a review of China’s practices that President Donald Trump ordered in August, called a 301 investigation.
According to section 301 of the trade act, the US government has given itself the power to unilaterally impose sanctions against countries which it decides are not trading fairly.
President Trump has repeatedly railed against the massive US trade deficit with China.
There is growing concern in the US that China is seeking technology that could be deployed for military purposes.
Congress is also weighing legislation that would boost the government’s power to review foreign business deals, citing the threat posed by state-backed acquisition of US companies.
China has said there would be no winner from any trade war.
On March 20, the last day of the annual sitting of the National People’s Congress, China’s Premier Le Keqiang said he hoped both sides could remain “calm”.
The Chinese prime minister also said he hoped the US would ease restrictions on exports of high-tech goods to China.
The United States violated global trade rules when it imposed tariffs on products from China and India, the World Trade Organization (WTO) has found.
In response to a 2012 complaint, the WTO said the US improperly imposed tariffs on Chinese steel and solar panels.
The WTO said the US improperly imposed tariffs on Chinese steel and solar panels
In a separate ruling, it said the US must change the way it imposes tariffs on India steel products.
The US is embroiled in several trade spats with China and India.
“China urges the United States to respect the WTO rulings and correct its wrongdoings of abusively using trade remedy measures, and to ensure an environment of fair competition for Chinese enterprises,” said China’s foreign trade ministry in a statement.
However, the WTO did not agree with all of the complaints filed by India and China.
The US – which has argued it imposed the tariffs to combat artificially low prices on products from India and China’s state-subsidized industries – has the right to appeal the ruling.
The US has won a World Trade Organization ruling against China in a dispute over tariffs on American luxury cars.
A WTO panel found no basis for duties that China imposed between 2011 and 2013.
The US described it as a “significant victory”.
The US has won a World Trade Organization ruling against China in a dispute over tariffs on American luxury cars
China began tariffs on saloons and off-road vehicles with an engine capacity of 2.5 litres or more in retaliation for US trade policies.
China argued when it introduced the charges that US carmakers, such as GM and Chrysler, had received government subsidies and flooded the Chinese market with the cars, which harmed China’s own car industry.
The US said China had imposed the duties without following the rules and filed the case with the WTO.
The rate was as high as 21.5%.
US Trade Representative Michael Froman said $5 billion of exports in 2013 had been taxed.
“The message is clear. China must follow the rules, just like other WTO members,” he said.
US vehicle exports to China were worth $8.6 billion in 2013, 48% more than a year earlier. It is the largest foreign market for US automakers after Canada.
The United States, EU and Japan have filed a case against China at the World Trade Organization (WTO), challenging its restrictions on rare earth exports.
US President Barack Obama announced the filing at the White House, accusing China of breaking agreed WTO rules.
Beijing has set quotas for exports of rare earths, which are critical to the manufacture of high-tech products from hybrid cars, to flat-screen TVs.
It is the first WTO case to be filed jointly by the US, EU and Japan.
They argue that by limiting exports, China, which produces more than 95% of the world’s rare earth metals, has pushed up prices.
“We’ve got to take control of our energy future and we cannot let that energy industry take root in some other country because they were allowed to break the rules,” President Barack Obama said in a Rose Garden press conference.
“If China would simply let the market work on its own we would have no objections.”
In the press conference, Barack Obama also said his newly established trade enforcement unit was ramping up operations.
Barack Obama announced the new unit in January.
The US, EU and Japan have filed a case against China at the WTO, challenging its restrictions on rare earth exports
China has denied the allegations in the WTO case, saying that it had enforced the quotas to ensure there was no environmental damage caused due to excessive mining.
“We think the policy is in line with WTO rules,” said Chinese foreign ministry spokesman Liu Weimin.
“Exports have been stable. China will continue to export, and will manage rare earths based on WTO rules,” he said.
The 17 metals are used in electrical products, as well as many renewable energy devices.
There have been concerns that Beijing has implemented the quotas in a bid to ensure that prices remain low within China, which would give its manufacturers an advantage.
But Ivor Shrago, chairman of the mining services firm Rare Earths Global, said the US was in trouble because it took the wrong decisions in the past.
“They took a deliberate decision about 20 years ago not to develop [rare earth mining] and instead to buy the completed products,” he said.
“Because of the deliberate decision that was taken, in China we have developed skills and expertise that the others do not have.”