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A deadly tsunami triggered by Anak Krakatau volcano’s eruption struck Indonesia on December 22, at 21:30 local time, during a local holiday.

Giant waves crashed into coastal towns on the islands of Sumatra and Java, killing at least 281 people and injuring 1,016.

Sea water did not recede as it would with an earthquake tsunami and experts say that even if there had been warning buoys near the volcano, there would have been minimal alert time.

On December 23, coastal residents near Indonesia’s Anak Krakatau volcano have been warned to keep away from beaches amid fears it could trigger a new tsunami.

It is thought that volcanic activity set off undersea landslides which in turn generated the killer waves.

Anak Krakatau erupted again on December 23, spewing ash and smoke.

Video shot from a charter plane captured the magnitude of the volcanic event in the Sunda Strait, between Sumatra and Java.

Rescue efforts are being hampered by blocked roads but heavy lifting equipment is being transported to badly hit areas to help search for victims.

The spokesman for the National Disaster Management Agency, Sutopo Purwo Nugroho, told a news conference that another tsunami is a possibility because of the continued volcanic eruptions of Anak Krakatau.

He said: “Recommendations from [the] Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysical Agency are that people should not carry out activities on the beach and stay away from the coast for a while.”

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Anak Krakatau, which emerged in 1927 from the caldera that was formed during the eruption of Krakatoa in 1883, has seen increased activity in recent months with people asked to avoid the area around its crater.

On December, Sutopo Purwo Nugroho put out a series of tweets explaining why there was no early warning for this tsunami. He said that Indonesia’s early warning system is set up to monitor earthquakes but not undersea landslides and volcanic eruptions, which can also generate deadly waves.

With 13% of the world’s volcanoes in Indonesia alone, it was crucial for the country to develop such system.

Sutopo Purwo Nugroho confirmed there was no tsunami advance warning system the night of the disaster, adding that because of lack of funds, vandalism to the buoys and technical faults there had been no operational tsunami warning system since 2012.

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Japan’s Sakurajima volcano – one of the country’s most active volcanoes – is due for a major eruption within the next 30 years, say scientists who have studied a build-up of magma there.

The Sakurajima volcano on Kyushu Island poses a “growing threat”, researchers at the University of Bristol say.

The volcano, located 30 miles from the Sendai nuclear plant, is also close to Kagoshima, a city of 600,000.

Sakurajima’s last deadly eruption was in 1914, when 58 people died.

Image source Wikipedia

Image source Wikipedia

The Japanese archipelago, which sits on the Pacific “Ring of fire”, has more than 100 volcanoes.

The Sakurajima volcano regularly spews ash and there are many small explosions there each year, with the latest eruption being in February.

The volcano is closely monitored by Japanese authorities and one of two volcanoes at Level 3 out of 5 levels in Japan’s volcanic warning system, which means that people are warned not to approach the volcano.

“The 1914 eruption measured about 1.5km cubed in volume,” said the study’s lead author Dr James Hickey, who has now joined the University of Exeter’s Camborne School of Mines.

“From our data we think it would take around 130 years for the volcano to store the same amount of magma for another eruption of a similar size- meaning we are around 25 years away.”

A report on the activity of the volcano was published on September 13 and teams from Bristol University and the Sakurajima Volcano Research Centre took part.

Their research showed that 14 million cubic meters of magma is accumulating each year, enough to fill London’s Wembley Stadium 3.5 times over.

Researchers added that the rate at which the magma is accumulating is faster than it can be expelled in its regular smaller eruptions, which led them to infer that a major eruption is likely in the next 30 years.

They made these assessments based on new ways of studying and modeling the volcano’s magma reservoir. Scientists say they hope these findings can help authorities plan for major eruptions.

New evacuation plans have already been prepared, according to an associate professor at Kyoto University.

“It is already passed by 100 years since the 1914 eruption, less than 30 years is left until a next expected big eruption,” said Dr. Haruhisa Nakamichi, Associate Professor at the Disaster Prevention Research Institute, Kyoto University.

“Kagoshima city office has prepared a new evacuation plan from Sakurajima.”

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Turrialba volcano has erupted in central Costa Rica, spewing smoke and ash up to 9,840ft into the air.

Hundreds of people have been hospitalized, complaining of breathing difficulties and skin problems.Turrialba volcano eruption 2016

Some schools were shut and some flights into the country cancelled or diverted.

People in the capital San Jose, about 30 miles west of the Turrialba volcano, said layers of ash had coated buildings and cars and there was a fierce smell of sulphur.

Costa Rica’s National Emergencies Commission has advised people to wear masks and tight clothing to protect their lungs and skin.

Volcanologist Gino Gonzalez told reporters: “It seems to me to be the strongest [Turrialba] eruption in the past six years.”

Costa Rica is home to dozens of volcanoes, but most of them are dormant.

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Ecuador has declared a state of emergency over increasing activity at the Cotopaxi volcano near the capital, Quito.

President Rafael Correa’s declaration gives authorities more flexibility in using government funds to address the situation.

Officials evacuated several hundred people from nearby villages after the volcano began to erupt on August 14.Cotopaxi volcano eruption 2015

Cotopaxi is among the world’s most dangerous volcanoes and is prone to fast-moving rock and mud flows.

Small eruptions have already shot ash more than 2 miles into the sky, spreading fine grey powder over as far as the capital 30 miles to the north.

Authorities have restricted access to the park that surrounds the volcano and barred mountaineers from climbing the snow-capped peak.

Cotopaxi volcano’s last major eruption was in 1877.

Chile’s Calbuco volcano has erupted for the first time in 42 years.

The volcano erupted twice in the space of a few hours.

Chile’s Onemi emergency office declared a red alert following the sudden eruption at around 18.00 local time, which occurred about 625 miles south of Santiago, the capital, near the tourist towns of Puerto Varas and Puerto Montt.

Footage from the area shows a huge column of lava and ash being sent several miles into the air.

More than 4,000 people have been evacuated within a 12 mile radius.

The Calbuco volcano is one of the most active in Chile, but its eruption took officials in the area by surprise.Calbuco volcano eruption 2015

Alejandro Verges, an emergency director for the region, said Calbuco had not been under any special form of observation.

The inhabitants of the nearby town of Ensenada – along with residents from two other smaller communities – have been ordered to evacuate their homes.

Schools in the area have been shut and some flights cancelled.

The nearby city of Puerto Montt – a gateway to the popular Patagonia region – has already been blanketed in a cloud of ash.

TV footage showed traffic jams in the city and long queues at petrol stations. The nearby town of Puerto Varas was also under a state of alert.

Mayor Gervoy Paredes said residents were “very, very frightened”.

Interior Minister Rodrigo Penailillo called on people affected to “remain calm and stay informed”.

Neighboring Argentina has also put emergency measures in place for the city of Bariloche – about 65 miles from Calbuco – where ash clouds are expected.

Residents there have been warned to stay indoors.

Chile has the second largest chain of volcanoes in the world after Indonesia, with about 500 that are potentially active.

Japanese rescue teams have recovered thirty bodies from the peak of Mount Ontake, after Saturday’s sudden volcanic eruption.

The hikers were not breathing and their hearts had stopped, reports said. Final confirmation of death in Japan always comes via a medical examination.

About 250 people were trapped on the slopes, but most have got down safely.

The volcano, about 125 miles west of Tokyo, erupted suddenly on September 27, spewing ash and rocks.

Japanese rescue teams have recovered thirty bodies from the peak of Mount Ontake, after Saturday's sudden volcanic eruption

Japanese rescue teams have recovered thirty bodies from the peak of Mount Ontake, after Saturday’s sudden volcanic eruption (photo Reuters)

Ordinarily it is a popular place to see autumn foliage.

As the search effort intensified earlier on September 28, officials said they were searching for 30 feared missing or buried by ash.

Military helicopters plucked seven people off the mountainside earlier on Sunday, the Associated Press reports, and workers on foot were also helping others make their way down.

Japan is one of the world’s most seismically active nations but there have been no fatalities from volcanic eruptions since 1991, when 43 people died at Mount Unzen in the south-west.

It’s not clear why there was no warning of Saturday’s eruption.

Japan monitors its volcanoes closely and any that show signs of activity are immediately closed to hikers – but this time that did not happen.

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Japan’s Mount Ontake volcano erupted on September 27, injuring at least eight hikers and leaving 250 others stranded near the peak.

Witnesses heard a “thunder-like” boom before the eruption at the 3,067m (10,120ft) peak, situated between Nagano and Gifu prefectures.

PM Shinzo Abe says the army will help rescue some 150 climbers sheltering in lodges near the summit.

Officials have warned residents within a 4km radius of the risk of debris.

Mount Ontake last erupted in 2007.

Mount Ontake volcano eruption injured at least eight hikers and left 250 others stranded near the peak

Mount Ontake volcano eruption injured at least eight hikers and left 250 others stranded near the peak

Some climbers have managed to descend.

Two of those injured have fractured bones caused by flying rocks, NHK said.

Three people are missing, believed buried under volcanic ash, it said. A fourth was rescued but remains unconscious, the broadcaster added, citing police.

Kiso Prefectural Hospital, near the mountain, said it had dispatched a medical emergency team.

“We expect a lot of injured people so we are now getting ready for their arrival,” said an official at the hospital.

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Iceland has raised its aviation warning level near the Bardarbunga volcano to red after an eruption began overnight.

Scientists said a fissure eruption 0.6 miles long started in a lava field north of the Vatnajokull glacier.

Civil protection officials said Icelandic Air Traffic Control had closed the airspace above the eruption up to a height of 5,000ft.

The volcano has been hit by several recent tremors.

The fissure eruption took place between Dyngjujokull Glacier and the Askja caldera, a statement from the Department of Civil Protection said.

Iceland has raised its aviation warning level near the Bardarbunga volcano to red after an eruption began overnight

Iceland has raised its aviation warning level near the Bardarbunga volcano to red after an eruption began overnight

The area is part of the Bardabunga system.

“Scientists who have been at work close to the eruption monitor the event at a safe distance,” the statement added.

“The Icelandic Met Office has raised the aviation colour code over the eruption site to red.”

It added that no volcanic ash had so far been detected but a coast guard aircraft was due to take off later to survey the site.

Until now the Icelandic Met Office has kept its aviation warning level – indicating the potential threat of volcanic activity to air travel – at orange, its second-highest.

On August, scientists said they were examining several “cauldrons” found near Bardarbunga volcano that could potentially be a sign of an eruption.

The cauldrons, depressions in the volcano’s surface, each between 49 ft deep and 0.6 miles wide, were seen during a flight on August 27.

Bardarbunga is part of a large volcano system hidden beneath the 1,600ft-thick Vatnajokull ice cap in central Iceland.

Iceland’s Eyjafjallajokull volcano erupted in 2010, producing ash that disrupted air travel across Europe.

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Five people have been killed after Rokatenda volcano erupted on tiny island of Palue in Indonesia, officials have said.

Mount Rokatenda, on the island of Palue some 1,250 miles east of Jakarta, spewed ash and rocks hundreds of metres into the air.

Five people have been killed after Rokatenda volcano erupted on tiny island of Palue in Indonesia

Five people have been killed after Rokatenda volcano erupted on tiny island of Palue in Indonesia

Disaster officials said hot ash covered a nearby beach, leaving three adults and two children dead.

The volcano had been rumbling since late last year, forcing the evacuation of hundreds of people.

A spokesman from Indonesia’s volcanology agency said it was not clear what the victims had been doing inside an exclusion zone.

Palue is about 2.5 miles wide, and lies a short distance off the north coast of Flores, the main island in Nusa Tenggara province.

Much of the Indonesian archipelago lays on the Pacific “ring of fire”, an area prone to volcanic eruptions and earthquakes.

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Argentina and Chile have ordered the evacuation of some 3,000 people living near the Copahue volcano in the south of their shared border.

The authorities in both countries issued a red alert – the highest possible – saying the Chilean volcano could erupt imminently.

The 2,965 m (nearly 10,000ft) volcano – which sits in the Andes cordillera – has so far only spewed gas.

Thousands of minor earth tremors have been registered in the area.

“This red alert has been issued after monitoring the activity of the volcano and seeing that it has increased seismic activity,” Chilean Interior Minister Andres Chadwick said in a news conference.

“There is a risk that it can start erupting.”

According to Chile’s Emergency Office, the evacuation will affect some 460 families living within a 25km (15 miles) radius of Copahue.

Argentina and Chile have ordered the evacuation of some 3,000 people living near the Copahue volcano

Argentina and Chile have ordered the evacuation of some 3,000 people living near the Copahue volcano

It said it could last about 48 hours, but could be delayed because of heavy rains in the region.

In Argentina, the authorities had first declared a “yellow alert,” but later revised it to the highest level.

They have now ordered the evacuation of about 600 people from the town of Caviahue to the neighboring city of Loncopue.

Last December, Chile also issued a red alert after Copahue – one of the most active volcanoes in the region – began spewing ash and gas, with smoke raising nearly 1.5km in the sky.

Nearby residents were temporarily evacuated, and planes flying over the southern Andes warned to avoid the area.

Hundreds of flights were cancelled last year due to the eruption of another volcano in southern Chile.

The Puyehue eruption caused huge economic damage not only to property in the area but also to tourism in Bariloche and other resorts.

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Mayon volcano has erupted in the Philippines, killing four German climbers and their guide.

Mount Mayon at 206 miles south-east of the capital Manila sent a cloud of ash and rocks into the sky early on Tuesday.

The ash blast caught a group climbing the mountain, which is famous for its near-perfect cone.

At least seven other climbers were hurt in the eruption, which lasted for just over a minute.

Mount Mayon at 206 miles south-east of the capital Manila sent a cloud of ash and rocks into the sky early on Tuesday

Mount Mayon at 206 miles south-east of the capital Manila sent a cloud of ash and rocks into the sky early on Tuesday

“Five killed and seven are injured, that is the latest report,” National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council chief Eduardo del Rosario said.

Four of those killed were German nationals and the fifth was their Filipino guide, the NDRRMC said later in a statement.

A guide on the mountain told a local television station by telephone that those who died were hit by the rocks that rained down on them after the ash blast.

Twenty people were approaching the summit of the mountain when the eruption occurred.

In an advisory, the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology called the eruption a “small phreatic event” that lasted about 73 seconds and sent ash 500m into the air. No intensification of volcanic activity was observed, it said, and the alert level would not be raised.

It said small steam and ash ejections could occur with little or no warning and advised against entry to the 4-mile radius Permanent Danger Zone around the volcano.

Chief state seismologist Renato Solidum described the eruption as a “stream driven explosion”, a “normal process” in any volcano. There was no need for local residents around the mountain to evacuate, he said.

Mt Mayon has erupted at least 48 times since records began. The most violent eruption, in 1814, killed more than 1,200 people and devastated several towns.

The most recent eruption was in late 2009, when tens of thousands of local residents were forced to evacuate as the volcano rumbled back to life.

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The authorities in Argentina and Chile have issued an alert over increased activity at the Copahue volcano, which has begun spewing smoke and gas.

Many residents have already left the area as a precaution.

An orange volcano alert, the second highest, has been issued in both countries.

The 3,000 m (10,000 ft) volcano is in Argentina’s south-western Neuquen province, which borders the Biobio region of Chile.

The authorities in Argentina and Chile have issued an alert over increased activity at the Copahue volcano, which has begun spewing smoke and gas

The authorities in Argentina and Chile have issued an alert over increased activity at the Copahue volcano, which has begun spewing smoke and gas

Ash has been raining down on the nearby villages of Copahue, Caviahue and Zapala.

Residents who have stayed behind have been told to monitor the situation and be prepared to evacuate.

Planes flying over the southern Andes have also been warned.

Hundreds of flights were cancelled last year due to the eruption of Puyehue volcano, in Chile.