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drug addiction

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Drug courts have been around for more than two decades now. The fundamental premise of these courts is to give individuals with minor criminal history yet struggling with alcohol or drug addiction a second chance. Essentially, they allow drug criminals to change their lives by entering into rehab instead of going to prison. Successful completion of the treatment program enables these individuals to avoid prison time or criminal conviction or even both.

Who Are Drug Criminals?

Drug criminals are individuals that commit drug-related crimes. These are individuals that commit crimes that involve the use of addictive substances such as illicit drugs and alcohol. When such individuals are incarcerated, they may quit abusing the addictive substances since they can’t access them in prison. However, this abstinence from drug abuse may not last. In most cases, the incarcerated individuals go back to their previous situations after completing their prison sentence.

Law enforcement and drug treatment is generally a complex issue. Essentially, when individuals commit crimes they should be punished or held accountable. However, a small percentage of offenders meet the substance abuse disorders’ criteria and are allowed to undergo treatment for it. It’s for this reason that drug courts were established. These programs take an innovative approach by providing alternatives to lighter sentences or incarceration to individuals that agree to undergo complete drug rehabilitation.

How Drug Criminals Are Treated

Drug criminals use drug court facilities (Addiction Resource provides a full guide) to undergo rehabilitation for drug addiction. Basically, drug courts target different individuals depending on their jurisdictions. They also use varying resources to treat drug criminals. Ideally, a team of prosecutors, judges, defense attorneys, and treatment specialists like professionals in drug rehabs and social workers manage these programs. Defendants’ family members are also allowed a chance to participate in events like graduation from the program and hearings.

In most cases, the courts employ programs that are aimed at curbing criminal recidivism, encouraging the defendants to work hard towards recovery from addiction, or reducing drug use. Basically, these programs are focused on helping the defendants to lead better, healthy lives without activities that lead to crimes that may cause them trouble with the drug court system.

Common programs of these courts include needs and risk assessment, ongoing monitoring, drug rehab, graduate incentives, and follow-up. Co-occurring mental health disorders treatment can also be part of these programs.

Drug Courts Eligibility Requirements

Research has proven the existence of a relationship between drug- or alcohol abuse and crime. This relationship suggests that addiction treatment can be more effective in reducing crime than incarceration. After all, incarceration is costly and the prison environment does not allow inmates to receive treatment. Drug courts allow offenders to undergo treatment for addiction at a non-adversarial environment.

But, to avoid being imprisoned or ordered to go to jail, offenders must meet the drug courts eligibility criteria. For instance, to qualify to enter drug court programs, offenders must:

  • Not have a criminal history
  • Face drug crime charges
  • Prove their drug addiction
  • Prove that they would benefit from undergoing treatment for drug addiction

It’s worth noting that only low-level felonies cases such as theft and shoplifting are considered for drug court programs. What’s more, these crimes must be tied to the drug addiction problem of the offender. Offenders with burglary, robbery, and gun cases are not considered for the programs of drug cases. Such offenders are mostly ordered to go to jail.

Currently, there are different types of drug courts. They include juvenile courts, family courts, veteran courts, DWI courts, tribal courts, co-occurring courts, re-entry courts, federal district, federal veterans, and campus courts. In total, there are more than 3,000 drug courts across the United States of America. Around half of them are targeted at juveniles and the other half at adults. Family drug courts target defendants that have child welfare cases pending. Their goal is to minimize family separation while maximizing recovery chances and enhancing parenting skills.

Effectiveness of Drug Courts and Their Implications

Drug court programs are based on the recognition of the great importance of drug rehabilitation in reducing crimes. Participants of drug courts’ programs enter the abeyance plea. This is a guilty plea on hold that allows the offender to enroll in the program of a drug court. The guilty plea is only withdrawn if the offender completes the program successfully and charges are dismissed or reduced. But, if the offender fails to complete the program, they still face imprisonment charges or sentencing.

Research has shown that the scheme of drug court is effective because participants are often less likely to commit crimes than similar offenders that are imprisoned or sentenced. What’s more, there is a less likelihood for participants to test positive for the drugs they abused than offenders in traditional correction systems.


The programs of drug courts incorporate drug rehabilitation. Therefore, they may cost more than incarcerating offenders in regular court systems. Nevertheless, reduction in re-offending rates enables drug courts to save more money per offender when compared to the cost of dealing with re-offenses in the long-term. Programs of drug courts also have a better outcome for juvenile cases than juvenile courts combined with intensive outpatient addiction treatment programs.

So, does this imply that drug courts are the answer to the drug addiction epidemic? Unfortunately, this question doesn’t have a single solution. The fact that drug courts help in the reduction of re-offenses doesn’t mean they can single-handedly solve the drug addiction problem. Their effectiveness only implies that they can be a great alternative for some drug offenders that would otherwise be imprisoned. That’s because it emphasizes the use of drug rehabilitation to ensure long-term recovery which minimizes re-offenses.

The Bottom Line

Everybody deserves a second chance and that’s what drug courts offer drug criminals. Sending people that commit crimes under the influence of drugs or alcohol to prison doesn’t help the society. Drug courts return drug criminals that are ready to reform back to the community while providing the support they need to recover from addiction. This enables them to achieve and maintain sobriety without re-offending and this helps everyone. 


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Being a famous athlete puts you in the spotlight. Because of this, every piece of your life becomes public knowledge; from the places you vacation to the people you date and even to your overall health.

Through the years, many famous baseball players have been the victim of various diseases and illnesses. Some of these baseball players were able to treat the disease while others eventually lost their battle.

Take a trip down memory lane and learn about the many diseases that have affected baseball players through the years.

Photo: Rosie Huntington-Whiteley via Instagram.

Photo: Rosie Huntington-Whiteley via Instagram.

Lou Gehrig and the Ice Bucket Challenge

Lou Gehrig may just be the most famous baseball player known for a disease. After all, he has a disease named after him. Lou Gehrig, otherwise known on the field as The Iron Horse, played first base for the New York Yankees for 17 years. In 1939, Gehrig was diagnosed with ALS, or what some currently refer to as Lou Gehrig’s disease. ALS is a progressive disease in which the nerve cells of the brain and spinal cord become degenerate, resulting in paralysis.

Ron Santo

Ron Santo was an American baseball player for the Chicago Cubs. Santo was an All American player, earning many achievements and accolades throughout his career despite battling type 1 diabetes. In fact, Santo hid his diabetes for more than 80 percent of his career. After his retirement, he ended up having the lower half of both his knees amputated. Santo died in 2010.

Brett Butler

Brett Butler was an outfielder for the Miami Marlins and Los Angeles Dodgers in the 1990s. In May 1996, Butler found out that he had squamous cell carcinoma in his tonsils, which required surgery and intensive treatment. Just four months after surgery, Butler was back on the field for the Dodgers, and even scored the winning run.

Ben Petrick

Ben Petrick is a former baseball player who had careers in both the minor and major leagues. He played for the Colorado Rockies and the Detroit Tigers from 1999 to 2004. In 2004, after noticing that his statistics and skill had fallen, he announced his retirement from baseball and disclosed that he had been diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease.

Josh Hamilton

Whether for recreation, medical or steroidal use, many baseball players have been affected by some form of drug abuse. Josh Hamilton is the poster boy for baseball players with a drug problem. Hamilton suffered from drug addiction and alcohol abuse, and finally decided to fight his illness when confronted by his grandmother. Although he has been sober since 2004, in order to stay on track, Hamilton undergoes drug testing three times every week. And when his team achieves something great, Hamilton’s teammates opt to celebrate with ginger ale instead of alcohol to accommodate their teammate and keep him sober.

Baseball is America’s past time, and through the years, America has come to love many different players. Unfortunately, although we look up to these athletes, they’re not superheroes, and they too are affected by illness and disease just like everyone else.

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The definition of addiction is not always agreed upon among professionals. In general it would be any type of behavior that becomes compulsive and interferes with an individual’s daily life. Building a tolerance and needing more of whatever activities or substances are being used is often a substantial element of addictions. Finally, losing control over the behavior is the hallmark of an addiction. The following are 10 prevalent addictions affecting men in the United States and all 10 addictions have available treatment support in rehabs for men.

Alcohol
Men are twice as likely as women to be addicted to alcohol. It also takes men approximately five years longer than women to seek help for an alcohol addiction.

Top-10-Male-Addictions

Smoking
According to the CDC approximately 20 percent of men in the United States smoke cigarettes. The number of men who smoke by age group is fairly evenly divided.

Drugs
While drug addiction covers a wide range of prescription and street drugs, the most commonly abused drug is marijuana. Painkillers appear to be the prescription drug of choice for men and women.

Gambling
Between 15 and 20 million adults have a gambling problem. The majority are men. Research indicates that men tend to be “action” gamblers, preferring games like poker that take a certain amount of skill. Women, however, are more likely to be “escape” gamblers and participate in games based on luck.

Pornography
Studies have revealed that the same brain changes that occur in drug addicts occur in those addicted to pornography. Men between the ages of 18 and 24 make up the largest percentage of men using pornography on a regular basis.

Cell Phone
Nomophobia is the official term for anxiety if there isn’t access to mobile technology. Nearly 47 percent of men have two phones. If a guy constantly checks his phone before getting out of bed each morning or can’t get through the first course in a restaurant without texting, there may be a problem.

Work
This is a tough addiction to pinpoint since a hardworking man is often viewed as successful. About 25 percent of American men work more than 50 hours each week. While working long hours is not necessarily a problem, when it interferes with health or personal relationships it may qualify as an addiction.

Sex
Sex addictions are not the same as addictions to pornography. One is primarily living in a fantasy world while the other is actually having sex with another person. About 8 percent of men in the United States suffer from this affliction.

Internet/Social Media
While online addictions are often connected to other addictions such as porn and gambling, constantly visiting places like Facebook and Twitter can also become a problem. Men may be especially susceptible to social media addiction because it’s an easy way for them to connect to others while still remaining disconnected on a certain level.

Food
Yes, men can struggle with food addictions, though usually not as much as women. Like so many other addictions, the release of dopamine in the brain is the driving influence behind this behavior.

While women’s addictions seem to be more severe, men are more likely to become addicts. Men are also less likely to seek help for their addictive behavior.

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Glee star Cory Monteith has checked himself into rehab for drug addiction.

Cory Monteith’s representative confirmed that the star, who has struggled with substance abuse in the past, has entered a treatment facility.

The actor “has voluntarily admitted himself to a treatment facility for substance addiction”, his spokesperson told People magazine.

Glee star Cory Monteith has checked himself into rehab for drug addiction

Glee star Cory Monteith has checked himself into rehab for drug addiction

“He graciously asks for your respect and privacy as he takes the necessary steps towards recovery.”

Cory Monteith’s girlfriend and Glee co-star Lea Michele told People magazine: “I love and support Cory and will stand by him through this. I am grateful and proud he made this decision.”

The 30-year-old actor has been open about his addiction problems in the past, and revealed back in 2011 that he entered rehab aged 19.

Cory Monteith hoped that talking about his own issues would help others to avoid making the same mistakes he did.

“I don’t want kids to think it’s okay to drop out of school and get high, and they’ll be famous actors, too,” he said.

“But for those people who might give up: Get real about what you want and go after it.”

Cory Monteith’s most recent tweet was posted on Thursday, when he wrote: “Such a beautiful day! truly seeing the forest for the trees. #gratitude.”

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Few months ago, Macaulay Culkin shocked the world with his pale and skeletal appearance, but he seems to have turned a major corner, and is now sporting a fuller frame and healthier complexion.

Macaulay Culkin, 31, who currently works as a DJ, stepped out yesterday in New York City looking the best he has in a long time.

Wearing a stripped shirt, black shades and faded gray jeans, Macaulay Culkin could be seen shopping at a Duane Reade convenience store and walking around the city’s Soho neighborhood.

In February, shocking photos of Macaulay Culkin emerged showing just how badly his life had seemingly unravelled.

Then last month, the 31-year-old’s tragic tale took a dramatic turn when it was claimed by the National Enquirer that he was “close to death”, because of an addiction to prescription drugs and heroin.

Macaulay Culkin stepped out yesterday in New York City looking the best he has in a long time

Macaulay Culkin stepped out yesterday in New York City looking the best he has in a long time

The allegations said he regularly shoots up heroin and the addictive painkiller oxycodone (dubbed hillbilly heroin).

The report went on to claim Macaulay Culkin had turned his Manhattan apartment into a drug den.

Although the reports were immediately denied by the star’s spokesperson, Michelle Bega, his estranged father, Kit Culkin, pleaded with his son to seek help before it’s too late.

The 67-year-old pensioner – who hasn’t spoken to Macaulay Culkin in 15 years following a row over his $17 million fortune – told The Sun: “I hope that he has the right people looking after him.”

Too distraught to talk any more, Kit Culkin’s wife, Jeanette, 68, explained the pair fear the former Home Alone actor is “dying of some disease or heavily into drugs” after seeing disturbing photographs of the star.

Responding to the drug addiction allegations, Macaulay Culkin’s publicist Michelle Bega said: “The report in the National Enquirer that Macaulay Culkin is addicted to heroin and assorted hallucinogenics is not only categorically without merit, but it is also impossibly and ridiculously fictitious.”

The Enquirer claimed Macaulay Culkin’s alleged drug use intensified 18 months ago – around the time he split from long-term girlfriend Mila Kunis, who is now dating Ashton Kutcher.

Two weeks ago, Macaulay Culkin was spotted out at Hollywood hot spot Chateau Marmont.

Although he wasn’t as skinny as before, his appearance didn’t entirely help to end the addiction rumors as he was seen clutching his stomach and appeared to be sick.

 

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Bobby Brown says he trusts his daughter Bobbi Kristina will not make the same mistakes he did.

Bobby Brown, 43, and Whitney Houston have both struggled with drug addiction and although their daughter Bobbi Kristina Brown has been forced to deny rumors she has also been abusing illegal drugs.

The singer believes his daughter is ”smart enough” not to follow in his footsteps.

Bobby Brown told MTV: ”Any parent that has a teenager in their life, they go through things. They go through phases that they might not be doing exactly what you want them to do in life, but they grow out of it, and my baby girl has grown out of it. I trust and believe that she’s smart enough to not go down the same road that maybe I did in the past or her mother did in the past. She’s extremely smart.”

Bobby Brown says he trusts his daughter Bobbi Kristina will not make the same mistakes he did

Bobby Brown says he trusts his daughter Bobbi Kristina will not make the same mistakes he did

Bobbi Kristina Brown is now focusing on launching an acting and music career since her mother died of accidental drowning caused by cardiac failure after taking cocaine in February and her dad is extremely proud of his daughter.

Bobby Brown said: ”That’s my baby girl. She’ll forever be my baby girl. She’s doing what she’s doing, and I’m extremely proud of her. She’s acting and she’s working on music and she’s doing what she has to do to recover from her loss – our loss.”

While father and daughter have a difficult relationship, Bobby Brown has denied reports that Bobbi Kristina wants to ditch the surname Brown.

Bobby Brown said: ”She can’t change her last name, her name is her name. She’ll forever be known as Bobbi Kristina Brown. There’s no changing that, there’s no taking that back.”