DSM-5, the latest psychiatrist bible, is warning of the dangerous physiological impact of caffeine intoxication.
An overdose of caffeine is among the mental disorders included in the latest edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) released on May 22.
Symptoms of the disorder include restlessness, nervousness, excitement, red face, gastrointestinal upset, muscle twitching, rambling speech, sleeplessness, rapid and irregular heartbeat, according to Live Science.
The findings about the mental impacts of a caffeine overdose come from the list of mental disorders compiled by the American Psychiatric Association (APA).
The DSM is the go-to guide for a myriad of professionals seeking to understand mental disorders including physicians, psychologists, social workers, nurses, occupational and rehabilitation therapists, and counselors, according to the APA website.
DSM-5 is warning of the dangerous physiological impact of caffeine intoxication
Caffeine intoxication had previously been listed as a disorder but in the latest edition of the DSM, it also includes the disorder associated with caffeine withdrawal.
Symptoms of caffeine withdrawal are described as including headache, fatigue, difficulty concentrating, depressed mood and other issues.
“Caffeine is invading our society more and more,” Alan Budney, who served on the DSM-5 working group for substance-use disorders, previously told Medscape Medical News in 2011 about why caffeine withdrawal was an important disorder to investigate.
“There’s concern enough to consider this topic seriously, even though it’s probably one of the more controversial issues faced by our work group,” he added.
Caffeine is considered the most widely used, behaviorally active drug in the world, alongside other chemicals that can prompt mental disorders.
The other powerful chemicals include alcohol, nicotine, cannabis, hallucinogens and other mind-altering substances.
Sex addiction has traditionally been written off as an “excuse” for philandering celebrities, but a new study suggests that it is a real disorder.
The disorder, in which sufferers have relentless sexual urges that feel out of their control, is even being considered for inclusion in America’s “bible” that lists all mental conditions, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM).
Until now, however, researchers have been struggling to define what hypersexual disorder, as sex addiction is formally known, actually is.
Under one proposed definition, a person who simply has frequent sex would not be diagnosed with it, said study researcher Rory Reid, an assistant professor and research psychologist at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA).
But a person whose sexual activities are excessive, frequently used to cope with stress and interfere with their ability to function in daily life may meet the criteria for the disorder.
In a new study from the university, the researchers emphasized they are not trying to turn common behaviors – such as having a lot of sex, or watching pornography – into disorders.
Instead, people with hypersexual disorder report feeling out of control, and act on their sexual urges, disregarding the repercussions.
“They might consider the consequences momentarily, but somehow feel their need for sex is more important, and choose sex even in situations where such choices might cause significant problems or harm, such as job loss, relationship problems or financial difficulties,” he told the website MyHealthNewsDaily.
The results of the study, published online in the Journal of Sexual Medicine, will be sent to the American Psychiatric Association.
In the UCLA study, hypersexual disorder was defined as “recurrent and intense sexual fantasies, sexual urges, and sexual behavior”, lasting at least six months.
To be diagnosed with the disorder, these sexual fantasies, urges and behaviors cause the patient distress, or interfere with some aspect of the patient’s life, such as the patient’s job or social life.
They must not be brought on by drugs or alcohol, or another mental disorder.
The conclusions were drawn after the researchers interviewed more than 200 people who had been referred to a mental health clinic, without knowing the reasons for their referral.
Of them, 150 were thought to have sexual behavior problems; the others had problems such as substance abuse.
Using the definitions above, 134 of the patients referred for sexual problems were diagnosed with hypersexual disorder.
And in 92% of cases, the professionals agreed on who should be diagnosed with the condition.
Doctors also asked patients to report which behaviors were most problematic for them, including masturbation, pornography viewing, sex with consenting adults, cybersex, telephone sex and frequenting strip clubs.
The majority who were diagnosed with hypersexual disorder said masturbation and pornography viewing were problematic.
Some patients reported losing jobs because they could not refrain from these behaviors at work, the study found.
Regarding the argument that being diagnosed with the disorder would provide an excuse to be unfaithful, Dr. Rory Reid said: “Having a disorder didn’t help them avoid consequences, such as divorce, but it is advantageous for them when they want to get help and change.”
He now wants to establish how common sex addiction is and whether these people have changes in their brain that are similar to those seen in people with addictions.
SEX ADDICTION SYMPTOMS
- Recurrent and intense sexual fantasies, sexual urges, and sexual behavior, lasting at least six months
- Excessive amounts of sex, frequently used to cope with stress.
- Sex interfering with the ability to function in daily life, e.g. job or social life
- Feeling out of control and having to act on sexual urges, even in situations it might cause significant problems or harm, such as job loss, relationship problems or financial difficulties
- The sexual fantasies, urges and behaviors must not be brought on by drugs or alcohol, or another mental disorder